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Overarching research question that guides CZO design

How does variability in climate, lithology and disturbance influence CZ structure and function over long (e.g., landscape evolution) and short (e.g., hydrologic event) time scales?

Goals of the Catalina-Jemez CZO

  • Develop a cross-disciplinary, multi-scale, natural laboratory for collaborative observation and modeling.
  • Measure the effects of climate, lithology, and disturbance variation on Critical Zone structure, function and evolution in the water-limited southwestern US.
  • Focus on environmental gradients within regional watersheds.
  • Develop a predictive-mechanistic understanding of how these systems affect environmental sustainability in a region of rapidly growing population growth and diminishing freshwater supplies.

Urban population growth throughout the southwestern US is sustained largely by water supplies that derive from upland catchments in nearby montane landscapes.  Southwestern mountain belts in Southern Arizona, for example, which vary widely in lithology, are sometimes termed "Sky Islands" because their higher elevations receive more annual precipitation, support greater vegetation biomass and have higher rates of net primary production than the surrounding "sea" of desert semi-arid to arid landscape. Ecosystems and soil development at high elevations in the Southwest also support domestic forestry, range and recreation industries.  Global climate models predict progressive warming and drying of the U.S. Southwest overall, and this is expected to affect the composition and health of ecosystems across the elevation range, e.g., through stress-induced disturbances such as insect outbreaks and wildfire.

Southwestern mountain systems are nonetheless expected to continue to serve as the water supply conduit to growing basin cities, in addition to supporting forestry, range and recreational activities.  The need to understand their capacity to do so in the context of changing climate motivates Catalina-Jemez CZO research.  The quantity and quality of water in upland catchments and receiving metropolitan areas depend on the processes that partition and transform it during its reactive transport through the CZ.  However, the present-day hydrologic, geomorphic and (bio)geochemical behavior of the CZ depends, in turn, on its structure, which has evolved over geological time scales in response to long-term climatic and tectonic forcing.  Therefore, a basic understanding of contemporary CZ behavior requires developing a conceptual model of how it has evolved to its current state, and how it will continue to evolve into the future.  Such evolution includes the formation of hydrologic flow paths, the (bio)geochemical differentiation of the weathering profile, and the production and erosion of soil-mantled hillslopes.  Our research involves field and laboratory based measurements in addition to computational modeling designed to understand how these processes are coupled over hydrologic event and landscape evolution time scales.

 


Gallery

Catalina

Santa Catalina Mountains Photos


Research News

FEATURED NATIONALLY

CZ colleagues: Please contact us about proposals for NSF’s CZ Collaborative Network, due 02 Dec 2019

08 Jul 2019 - CZO will end Nov 2020, succeeded by the “CZ Collaborative Network”. Let’s explore how the CZ community can build upon the CZOs via new NSF proposals.

FEATURED NATIONALLY

CZOs at AGU 2019

19 Jun 2019 - A list of CZ-related sessions, abstracts and events at the 2019 AGU Fall Meeting.

FEATURED

CZOs at AGU 2018

19 Nov 2018 - The 2018 AGU Fall Meeting will be held December 10-14 in Washington, D.C.

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NSF Discovery articles focus on the CZOs.

10 May 2018 - The Discoveries section of the National Science Foundation's website on Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs).

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NSF News Release: What’s killing trees during droughts? Scientists have new answers.

14 Aug 2017 - Researchers find that carbon starvation and hydraulic failure kill drought-stricken trees.

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AGU Horton Research Grant Award

03 Jul 2017 - Ravindra Dwivedi received the prestigious 2017 AGU Horton Research Grant to support his CZO work in the Santa Catalina Mountains.

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Post-Wildfire Erosion Can Sculpt Forested Mountains

19 Apr 2016 - Researchers from the UA Santa Catalina Mountains & Jemez River Basin Critical Zone Observatory did before-and-after studies of how severe...

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EOS: Bark Beetles Cause Big Tree Die-Offs, but Streams Flow Steadily

10 Mar 2016 - EOS article written by Lily Strelich features research conducted by CZO investigators and their colleagues, which shows that bark beetle epidemics...

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The 2016 MG Anderson Award

03 Mar 2016 - The 2016 MG Anderson Award for Outstanding Paper in Hydrological Processes, Wiley is presented to Jemez-Catalina CZO investigators.

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EOS Opinion: Understanding Ecosystem Services from a Geosciences Perspective

22 Jan 2016 - Assessment of ecosystem services can be improved by including broader spatial and temporal scales of geosciences perspectives.

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Forests Worldwide Vulnerable to Drought, UA Researcher Says

28 Aug 2015 - David Breshears was interviewed by Sara Hammond about forest vulnerability to growing risks of drought and heat-induced die-off. Read and listen...

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Jon Chorover to speak at international workshop on hydro-biogeochemical processes

16 Jul 2015 - Jon Chorover of the Santa Catalina Mountains & Jemez River Basin CZO has been invited to talk at the Hydro-Biogeochemical Processes: Mechanisms,...

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Soil, Not Dirt: A Digital Journey Connecting Soils, Plants, and Climate by Rebecca Lybrand

08 Jun 2015 - Join Rebecca on an exciting GoPro adventure to study soil in the desert, grasslands, and pine forests of Arizona.

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Critical Zone Profiles - Meet the people doing CZO science (Catalina-Jemez CZO)

19 Mar 2015 - Get a sense of the people and the work. Several members of the Catalina-Jemez CZO are profiled here, including students and professors.

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Critical Zone Services: Expanding Context, Constraints, and Currency beyond Ecosystem Services

10 Feb 2015 - Critical Zone Services: Expanding Context, Constraints, and Currency beyond Ecosystem Services

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Predicting post-wildfire erosion better

08 Dec 2014 - Jon Pelletier and his graduate student Caitlin Orem's research on the post Las Conchas fire erosion was highlighed in the Arizona Daily Star...


White paper of 2017 CZ Science Meeting in Arlington, VA

01 Jan 2018 - New Opportunities for Critical Zone Science Following the June 2017 Arlington Meeting for Critical Zone Science (hosted by CZO), a white booklet...

CZOs at AGU 2017

05 Dec 2017 - Information on CZO award recipients, events, presentations, etc. at the 2017 AGU Fall Meeting.

Water Resources Research Special Collection: Concentration-discharge relations in the critical zone

30 Oct 2017 - Water Resources Research published a new special collection in September 2017 featuring concentration-discharge research from multiple CZOs.

The frontier beneath our feet — an AGU commentary on the critical zone

21 Apr 2017 - AGU has published a collection of commentaries highlighting the important role Earth and space science research plays in society.

2017 CZO Webinar Series: Critical Zone and Society

06 Apr 2017 - 2017 CZO Webinar Series: Critical Zone and Society.

More News >


Example Publications

FEATURED

Drought supersedes warming in determining volatile and tissue defenses of piñon pine (Pinus edulis). Trowbridge A.M., Stoy P.C., Adams H.D., Law D.J., Breshears D.D., Helmig D., and Monson R.K. (2019): Environmental Research Letters 14(6): 065006

FEATURED

Rare earth elements (REY) sorption on soils of contrasting mineralogy and texture. Dinali G.S., Root R.A., Amistadi M.K., Chorover J., Lopes G., Guilherme L.R.G. (2019): Environment International 128: 279-291

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Dependence of Aspen Stands on a Subsurface Water Subsidy: Implications for Climate Change Impacts. Love D.M., Venturas M.D., Sperry J.S., Brooks P.D., Pettit J.L., Wang Y., Anderegg W.R.L., Tai X., Mackay D.S. (2019): Water Resources Research 55(3): 1833-1848

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Mechanisms of a coniferous woodland persistence under drought and heat. McDowell N.G., Grossiord C., Adams H.D., Pinzón-Navarro S., Mackay D.S., Breshears D.D., Allen C.D., Borrego I., Dickman L.T., Collins A., Gaylord M., McBranch N., Pockman W.T., Vilagrosa A., Aukema B., Goodsman D., and Xu C. (2019): Environmental Research Letters 14(4): 045014

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Bioclimatic Envelopes for Individual Demographic Events Driven by Extremes: Plant Mortality from Drought and Warming. Law D.J., Adams H.D., Breshears D.D., Cobb N.S., Bradford J.B., Zou C.B., Field J.P., Gardea A.A., Williams A.P., and Huxman T.E. (2019): International Journal of Plant Sciences 180(1): 53-62

FEATURED

A coupled microscopy approach to assess the nano-landscape of weathering. Lybrand, Rebecca A., Jason C. Austin, Jennifer Fedenko, Rachel E. Gallery, Erin Rooney, Paul A. Schroeder, Dragos G. Zaharescu, & Odeta Qafoku (2019): Scientific Reports 9: Article number 5377 Cross-CZO

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Hydrologic functioning of the deep critical zone and contributions to streamflow in a high‐elevation catchment: Testing of multiple conceptual models. Dwivedi R., Meixner T., McIntosh J.C., Ferré P.A.T., Eastoe C.J., Niu G.-Y., Minor R.L., Barron-Gafford G.A., Chorover J. (2019): Hydrological Processes 33(4): 476-494

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The effects of a catastrophic forest fire on the biomass of submerged stream macrophytes. Thompson V.F., Marshall D.L., Reale J.K., Dahm C.N. (2019): Aquatic Botany 152: 36-42

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Understanding Critical Zone Evolution through Predicting the Three-Dimensional Soil Chemical Properties of a Small Forested Catchment. Shepard C., Schaap M.G., Chorover J., Rasmussen C. (2018): Soil Science Society of America Journal 82(6): 1538-1550

FEATURED NATIONALLY

Reevaluating growing season length controls on net ecosystem production in evergreen conifer forests. Barnard, D.M., Knowles, J.F., Barnard, H.R., Goulden, M.L., Hu, J., Litvak, M.E., Molotch, N.P. (2018): Scientific Reports 8(1): 17973 Cross-CZO

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Subsurface Pore Water Contributions to Stream Concentration-Discharge Relations Across a Snowmelt Hydrograph. Olshansky Y., White A.M., Moravec B.G., McIntosh J., Chorover J. (2018): Frontiers in Earth Science 6: 181

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Signatures of Obliquity and Eccentricity in Soil Chronosequences. Shepard C., Pelletier J.D., Schaap M.G., Rasmussen C. (2018): Geophysical Research Letters 45(20): 11147–11153

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Implicit assumptions of conceptual diagrams in environmental science and best practices for their illustration. Fandel C.A., Breshears D.D., and McMahon E.E. (2018): Ecosphere 9(1): e02072

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Disturbance Alters the Relative Importance of Topographic and Biogeochemical Controls on Microbial Activity in Temperate Montane Forests. Lybrand R.A., Gallery R.E., Trahan N.A., Moore D.J.P. (2018): Forests 9(2): 97

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A considerable fraction of soil-respired CO2 is not emitted directly to the atmosphere. Sánchez-Cañete E.P., Barron-Gafford G.A. & Chorover J. (2018): Scientific Reports 8: 13518

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Controlled Experiments of Hillslope Coevolution at the Biosphere 2 Landscape Evolution Observatory: Toward Prediction of Coupled Hydrological, Biogeochemical, and Ecological Change. Volkmann T.H.M., Sengupta A., Pangle L.A., Dontsova K., Barron-Gafford G.A., Harman C.J., Niu G.-Y., Meredith L.K., Abramson N., Meira Neto A.A., Wang Y., Adams J.R., Breshears D.D., Bugaj A., Chorover J., Cueva A., DeLong S.B., Durcik M., Ferre T.P.A., Hunt E.A., Huxman T.E., Kim M., Maier R.M., Monson R.K., Pelletier J.D., Pohlmann M., Rasmussen C., Ruiz J., Saleska S.R., Schaap M.G., Sibayan M., Tuller M., van Haren J.L.M., Zeng X. and Troch P.A. (2018): in: Hydrology of Artificial and Controlled Experiments (eds. Jiu-Fu Liu and Wei-Zu Gu), IntechOpen, pp. 25-74

FEATURED

Why Do Large‐Scale Land Surface Models Produce a Low Ratio of Transpiration to Evapotranspiration?. Chang L.-L., Dwivedi R., Knowles J.F., Fang Y.-H., Niu G.-Y., Pelletier J.D., Rasmussen C., Durcik M., Barron‐Gafford G.A., Meixner T. (2018): Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 123(17): 9109-9130

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Controls on Soil Organic Carbon Partitioning and Stabilization in the California Sierra Nevada. Rasmussen C., Throckmorton H., Liles G., Heckman K., Meding S., and Horwath W.R. (2018): Soil Systems 2(3): 41 Cross-CZO

FEATURED

Snowmelt‐driven trade‐offs between early and late season productivity negatively impact forest carbon uptake during drought. Knowles J.F., Molotch N.P., Trujillo E. & Litvak M.E. (2018): Geophysical Research Letters 45: 3087–3096 Cross-CZO

FEATURED

Impact of Hydraulic Redistribution on Multispecies Vegetation Water Use in a Semiarid Savanna Ecosystem: An Experimental and Modeling Synthesis. Lee, E., Kumar, P., Barron-Gafford, G.A., Hendryx, S.M., Sanchez-Canete, E.P., Minor, R.L., Colella, T., and Scott, R.L. (2018): Water Resources Research Cross-CZO

FEATURED

Trace element mobilization during incipient bioweathering of four rock types. Burghelea C.I., Dontsova K., Zaharescu D.G., Maier R.M., Huxman T., Amistadi M.K., Hunt E., Chorover J. (2018): Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 234: 98-114

FEATURED NATIONALLY

A net ecosystem carbon budget for snow dominated forested headwater catchments: linking water and carbon fluxes to critical zone carbon storage. Perdrial J., Brooks P.D., Swetnam T., Lohse K.A., Rasmussen C., Litvak M., Harpold A.A., Zapata-Rios X., Broxton P., Mitra B., Meixner M., Condon K., Huckle D., Stielstra C., Vázquez-Ortega A., Lybrand R., Holleran M., Orem C., Pelletier J., Chorover J. (2018): Biogeochemistry 138{3): 225–243 Cross-CZO

FEATURED

Implementing dynamic root optimization in Noah‐MP for simulating phreatophytic root water uptake. Wang P., Niu G.‐Y., Fang Y.‐H., Wu R.‐J., Yu J.‐J., Yuan G.‐F., Pozdniakov S.P., and Scott R.L. (2018): Water Resources Research 54(3): 1560–1575

FEATURED

Which way do you lean? Using slope aspect variations to understand Critical Zone processes and feedbacks. Pelletier J. D., Barron‐Gafford G. A., Gutiérrez‐Jurado H., Hinckley E.‐L. S., Istanbulluoglu E., McGuire L. A., Niu G.‐Y., Poulos M. J., Rasmussen C., Richardson P., Swetnam T. L., and Tucker G. E. (2018): Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 43(5): 1133–1154 Cross-CZO

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Research frontiers for improving our understanding of drought‐induced tree and forest mortality. Hartmann, H., Moura, C.F., Anderegg, W.R., Ruehr, N.K., Salmon, Y., Allen, C.D., Arndt, S.K., Breshears, D.D., Davi, H., Galbraith, D., Ruthrof, K.X., Wunder, J., Adams, H.D., Bloemen, J., Cailleret, M., Cobb, R., Gessler, A., Grams, T.E., Jansen, S., Kautz, M., Lloret, F. and O'Brien, M. (2018): New Phytologist 218(1): 15-28

FEATURED

Climate, topography, and dust influences on the mineral and geochemical evolution of granitic soils in southern Arizona. Lybrand R.A. and Rasmussen C. (2018): Geoderma 314: 245-261

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Humidity determines snowpack ablation under a warming climate. Harpold A.A. and Brooks P.D. (2018): PNAS 115(6): 1215-1220 Cross-CZO

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Beyond clay: towards an improved set of variables for predicting soil organic matter content. Rasmussen C., Heckman K., Wieder W.R., Keiluweit M., Lawrence C.R., Berhe A.A., Blankinship J.C., Crow S.E., Druhan J.L., Hicks Pries C.E., Marin-Spiotta E., Plante A.F., Schädel C., Schimel J.P., Sierra C.A., Thompson A., Wagai R. (2018): Biogeochemistry 137(3): 297–306 Cross-CZO

FEATURED

Wet–dry cycles impact DOM retention in subsurface soils. Olshansky Y., Root R.A., and Chorover J. (2018): Biogeosciences 15: 821-832

FEATURED

Ecosystem dynamics and management after forest die-off: a global synthesis with conceptual state-and-transition models. Cobb R.C., Ruthrof K.X., Breshears D.D., Lloret F., Aakala T., Adams H.D., Anderegg W.R.L., Ewers B.E., Galiano L., Grünzweig J.M., Hartmann H., Huang C., Klein T., Kunert N., Kitzberger T., Landhäusser S.M., Levick S., Preisler Y., Suarez M.L., Trotsiuk V., and Zeppel M.J.B (2017): Ecosphere 8(12)

FEATURED

Neoichnology of Semiarid Environments: Soils and Burrowing Animals of the Sonoran Desert, Arizona, USA. Hembree, D.I., Smith, J.J., Buynevich, I.V., and Platt, B.F. (2017): PALAIOS 32(9):620-638

FEATURED

The temperature response surface for mortality risk of tree species with future drought. Adams H.D., Barron-Gafford G.A., Minor R.L., Gardea A.A., Bentley L.P., Law D.J., Breshears D.D., McDowell N.G., Huxman T.E. (2017): Environmental Research Letters 12(11): 115014

FEATURED

Photosynthetic phenological variation may promote coexistence among co-dominant tree species in a Madrean sky island mixed conifer forest. Potts D.L., Minor R.L., Braun Z., Barron-Gafford G.A. (2017): Tree Physiology 37(9): 1229–1238

FEATURED

Regional sensitivities of seasonal snowpack to elevation, aspect, and vegetation cover in western North America. Christopher J. Tennant, Adrian A. Harpold, Kathleen Ann Lohse, Sarah E. Godsey, Benjamin T. Crosby, Laurel G. Larsen, Paul D. Brooks, Robert W. Van Kirk, Nancy F. Glenn (2017): Water Resources Research 53 Cross-CZO National

FEATURED

Soil organic carbon partitioning and Δ14C variation in desert and conifer ecosystems of southern Arizona. Lybrand R.A., Heckman K., and Rasmussen C. (2017): Biogeochemistry 134(3): 261-277

FEATURED

Impacts of hydraulic redistribution on grass–tree competition vs facilitation in a semi-arid savanna. Barron-Gafford G.A., Sanchez-Cañete E.P., Minor R.L., Hendryx S.M., Lee E., Sutter L.F., Tran N., Parra E., Colella T., Murphy P.C., Hamerlynck E.P., Kumar P. and Scott R.L. (2017): New Phytologist 215(4): 1451–1461 Cross-CZO

FEATURED

A multi-species synthesis of physiological mechanisms in drought-induced tree mortality. Adams H.D., Zeppel M.J.B., Anderegg W.R.L., Hartmann H., Landhausser S.M., Tissue D.T., Huxman T.E., Hudson P.J., Franz T.E., Allen C.D., Anderegg L.D.L., Barron-Gafford G.A., Beerling D.J., Breshears D.D., Brodribb T.J., Bugmann H., Cobb R.C., Collins A.D., Dickman L.T., Duan H., Ewers B.E., Galiano L., Galvez D.A., Garcia-Forner N., Gaylord M.L., Germino M.J., Gessler A., Hacke U.G., Hakamada R., Hector A., Jenkins M.W., Kane J.M., Kolb T.E., Law D.J., Lewis J.D., Limousin J-M., Love D.M., Macalady A.K., Marti­nez-Vilalta J., Mencuccini M., Mitchell P.J., Muss J.D., O'Brien M.J., O'Grady A.P., Pangle R.E., Pinkard E.A., Piper F.I., Plaut J.A., Pockman W.T., Quirk J., Reinhardt K., Ripullone F., Ryan M.G., Sala A., Sevanto S., Sperry J.S., Vargas R., Vennetier M., Way D.A., Xu C., Yepez E.A., and McDowell N.G. (2017): Nature Ecology & Evolution 1: 1285–1291

FEATURED

Asymmetry of weathering-limited hillslopes: the importance of diurnal covariation in solar insolation and temperature. Pelletier J.D. and Swetnam T.L. (2017): Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 42(9): 1408–1418

FEATURED

Coevolution of soil and topography across a semiarid cinder cone chronosequence. Rasmussen C., McGuire L., Dhakal P., Pelletier J.D. (2017): CATENA 156: 338-352

FEATURED

Topographically driven differences in energy and water constrain climatic control on forest carbon sequestration. Swetnam T.L., Brooks P.D., Barnard H.R., Harpold A.A., and Gallo E.L. (2017): Ecosphere 8(4): e01797 Cross-CZO

FEATURED

Improving the accuracy of the gradient method for determining soil carbon dioxide efflux. Sánchez-Cañete E.P., Scott R.L., van Haren J., and Barron-Gafford G.A. (2017): Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 122(1): 50-64

FEATURED

Prevalence and magnitude of groundwater use by vegetation: a global stable isotope meta-analysis. Jaivime Evaristo and Jeffrey J. McDonnell (2017): Scientific Reports 7 Cross-CZO National

FEATURED

Ecosystem Composition Controls the Fate of Rare Earth Elements during Incipient Soil Genesis. Zaharescu D.G., Burghelea C.I., Dontsova K., Presler J.K., Maier R.M., Huxman T., Domanik K.J., Hunt E.A., Amistadi M.K., Gaddis E.E., Palacios-Menendez M.A., Vaquera-Ibarra M.O. and Chorover J. (2017): Scientific Reports 7: 43208

FEATURED

Critical Zone Services: Expanding Context, Constraints, and Currency beyond Ecosystem Services. Field J.P., Breshears D.D., Law D.J., Villegas J.C., López-Hoffman L., Brooks P.D., Chorover J., Barron-Gafford G.A., Gallery R.E., Litvak M.E., Lybrand R.A., McIntosh J.C., Meixner T., Niu G-Y., Papuga S.A., Pelletier J.D., Rasmussen C.R., and Troch P.A (2015): Vadose Zone Journal 14(1)


Hillslope hydrology in global change research and Earth system modeling. Fan, Y., Clark, M., Lawrence, D. M., Swenson, S., Band, L. E., Brantley, S. L., P. D. Brooks, W. E. Dietrich, A. Flores, G. Grant, J. W. Kirchner, D. S. Mackay, J. J. McDonnell, P. C. D. Milly, P. L. Sullivan, C. Tague, H. Ajami, N. Chaney, A. Hartmann, P. Hazenberg, J. McNamara, J. Pelletier, J. Perket, E. Rouholahnejad‐Freund, T. Wagener, X. Zeng, E. Beighley, J. Buzan, M. Huang, B. Livneh, B. P. Mohanty, B. Nijssen, M. Safeeq, C. Shen, W. van Verseveld, J. Volk, D. Yamazaki (2019): Water Resources Research, vol 55 Cross-CZO

Reassessing the dissolved molybdenum isotopic composition of ocean inputs: The effect of chemical weathering and groundwater. King, E.K. and Pett-Ridge, J.C. (2018): Geology 46 (11): 955-958 Cross-CZO National

Interdisciplinary Teaching about Earth and the Environment for a Sustainable Future Book Chapter: Implementing and Assessing InTeGrate Critical Zone Science Materials in an Undergraduate Geoscience Program. Ashlee Dere, Carol Engelmann, Timothy White, Adam Wymore, Adam Hoffman, James Washburne, Martha Conklin (2018): Springer Cross-CZO National

Topographically driven differences in energy and water constrain climatic control on forest carbon sequestration . Swetnam, TL, Brooks, PD, Barnard, HR, Harpold, AA, and Gallo, EL (2017): Ecosphere 8 (4): e01797. Cross-CZO

Concentration-Discharge Relations in the Critical Zone: Implications for Resolving Critical Zone Structure, Function and Evolution. Chorover, J., Derry, L. A., McDowell, W. H. (2017): Water Resources Research 53(11): 8654–8659 Cross-CZO National

Growing new generations of critical zone scientists. Wymore, Adam S., Nicole R. West, Kate Maher, Pamela L. Sullivan, Adrian Harpold, Diana Karwan, Jill A. Marshall, Julia Perdrial, Daniella M. Rempe and Lin Ma (2017): Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 42 (14): 2498-2502 Cross-CZO National

Geochemical evolution of the Critical Zone across variable time scales informs concentration-discharge relationships: Jemez River Basin Critical Zone Observatory. McIntosh J.C., Schaumberg C., Perdrial J., Harpold A., Vázquez-Ortega A., Rasmussen C., Vinson D., Zapata-Rios X., Brooks P.D., Meixner T., Pelletier J., Derry L., Chorover J. (2017): Water Resources Research 53(5): 4169–4196 Cross-CZO National

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