Sensors & Field Instruments

Atmospheric sampling nodes consist of 8 weather stations and an additional 8 rain gages that will monitor climatic and geochemical inputs to the different lithologies and forest types across a precipitation gradient that ranges from 1000 mm/yr to 5000 mm/yr. Additional aquatic nodes of the observatory focus on quantifying the fluxes of water, sediment, and solutes from the basin and how they are transformed as they move from pore spaces in the lithologic matrix to the coastal zone.  These nodes include 8 stream gages and numerous georeferenced cross-sections and riparian sampling sites. 

 

Infrastructure

The basic infrastructure of the LCZO is an integrated set of sampling sites (e.g. nodes in Table 2).  These sampling sites are built upon existing study sites that have long-term and ongoing records of rainfall, throughfall, litterfall, and streamflow (Schellekens et al 2004, Peters et al 2006, Heartsill et al 2007, Wei et al 2007).  Atmospheric sampling nodes consist of 8 weather stations and an additional 8 rain gages that will monitor climatic and geochemical inputs to the different lithologies and forest types across a precipitation gradient that ranges from 1000 mm/yr to 5000 mm/yr.  Atmospheric inputs are monitored at existing climate stations that are maintained by the LCZO with support from the USGS, the USFS, and UC Berkeley.  Although these stations cover the entire matrix of elevation, lithology, and forest types, most of these stations were established with previous funding that no longer exists.  LCZO funding has been used to upgraded, calibrated, and integrated these stations into a network that for the first time constrains variations in precipitation along the elevation gradient and thereby improves water budgets for the individual study basins.
Aquatic nodes of the observatory focus on quantifying the fluxes of water, sediment, and solutes from the basin and how they are transformed as they move from pore spaces in the lithologic matrix to the coastal zone.  These nodes include 8 stream gages and numerous georeferenced cross-sections and riparian sampling sites (see Phillips, Litwin, Malvadkar write-ups in this volume).  A major limitation to previous studies has been the ability to monitor storm events and temporal variations in exports.  To overcome this limitation, the LCZO has added temperature, conductivity and turbidity sensors to existing stream gages to obtain continuous records of conductivity, and temperature (Shanley et al 2008).  Water chemistry is sampled weekly and during coordinated sampling campaigns (see Occhi in this volume).  All samples are processed at the USGS WEBB laboratories and at the University of New Hampshire in collaboration with the Luquillo LTER site.
For specific details regarding datasets and sensors used at specific sites please visit us at https://www.sas.upenn.edu/lczodata

 

Study Site

X

Y

Elevation [m]

Measurements

Frequency

Length of Record

Website

Climate Stations              
               
East Peak -65.763838 18.279714 989.0 Precip, Temp & radiation, wind,chemistry Daily, hourly avg, total, max, min 2002-present omayol@ites.upr.edu
East Peak UPR African Dust -65.757888 18.2679323 1027.7 Visibility, Dust Chemistry Continuous and event based sampling 2010-present omayol@ites.upr.edu
Bisley Meteorlogical Tower 1 -65.74491 18.314406 352.0 Precip, Temp & radiation, wind, chemistry Continuous 1987-present Luquillo-CZO@sas.upenn.edu
Bisley Meteorlogical Tower 2 -65.746111 18.304444 481.9 Precip, Temp & radiation, wind, chemistry Continuous 1995-present USGS
Bisley Throughfall and Stem flow -65.74491 18.314406 260-400 32 Bulk collectors Weekly volume and chemistry 1987-present Luquillo-CZO@sas.upenn.edu
Sabana Field Station -65.729763 18.324913 79.3 Precip, Temp & radiation, wind Continuous 2000-present USGS
El Verde Field Station -65.81972 18.321055 447.4 Precip, Temp & radiation, wind, chemistry Continuous, NADP wet and dry collector 1970's to present msalgado@fs.fed.us
UC Berkeley Upper LM Climate     700-1000 4 weather stations in elevation transect in upper Luquillo Mts Continuous 1994-present  
USGS Stream gages     200-640 Precipitation gauges are located at most stream gages   1990's to present USGS
               
Stream Gages              
               
Bisley Quebrada 1 -65.74538 18.315717 261 Discharge, temp, conductivity,chemistry Continuous, weekly chemistry 1987-present Luquillo-CZO@sas.upenn.edu
Bisley Quebrada 2 -65.74629 18.314637 267 Discharge, temp, conductivity,chemistry Continuous, weekly chemistry 1987-present Luquillo-CZO@sas.upenn.edu
Bisley Quebrada 3 -65.747312 18.314091 265 Discharge, temp, chemistry Continuous, weekly chemistry 1987-present Luquillo-CZO@sas.upenn.edu
Rio Sabana at Sabana -65.731111 18.331111 78 Discharge, temp, chemistry Continuous, weekly chemistry 1979 to present USGS
Mameyes, Puente Roto -65.751111 18.329444 274 Discharge, temp, chemistry Continuous, weekly chemistry 1967 to present USGS
Quebrada Sonadora, El Verde -65.8175 18.323333 373 Discharge, temp, chemistry Continuous, weekly chemistry 1983 to present USGS
Rio Icacos, Naguabo -65.785833 18.277222 616 Discharge, temp, turbidity,chemistry Weekly Samples 1945 to present USGS
Quebrada Guaba, Naguabo -65.788889 18.283889 640 Discharge, temp, chemistry Weekly Samples 1992 to 2012 USGS
Rio Grande, El Verde -65.841667 18.345278 51 Discharge, temp Weekly Samples 1967 to present USGS
Rio Blanco, Florida -65.785 18.229167 16 Discharge, temp Daily, 15 min time series 1983 to present USGS
               
Groundwater              
               
Bisley Riparian Well Field -65.747508 18.31651 221.0 Network of shallow wells, slope to stream Continious to event 1987-present Bill.McDowell@UNH.EDU
Icacos Riparian Well Field -65.789003 18.281419 625.0 Network of shallow wells, slope to stream Continious to event 1987-present Bill.McDowell@UNH.EDU
USGS Icacos Lysmeter Field -65.788496 18.281899 640.0 Cup and plate suction sampliers and gas sampliers from surface to point of refusal     USGS
USGS Bisley Lysmeter Ridge Field -65.742842 18.313686 409.9 Cup and plate suction sampliers and gas sampliers from surface to point of refusal     USGS
USGS Bisley Lysmeter Slope Field -65.74515 18.315854 282.6 Cup and plate suction sampliers and gas sampliers from surface to point of refusal     USGS
Bisley Deep Observation Well B1W1 & 2 -65.745772 18.315524 272.0 Continious core samples, chemistry Monthly and Event sampling   Luquillo-CZO@sas.upenn.edu
Icacos Deep Observation Well -65.788496 18.281899 640.0 Continious core samples, chemistry Monthly and Event sampling   Luquillo-CZO@sas.upenn.edu
Rt 191 Deep Observation Wells -65.7888895 18.284333 652.0 Continious core samples, chemistry Monthly and Event sampling   Luquillo-CZO@sas.upenn.edu
               
Vegetation and Soil plots              
               
Bisley Forest Litterfall -65.74629 18.314637 260-400 Litterfall mass and elemental fluxes bi-weekly mass flux and chemistry   Bill.McDowell@UNH.EDU
Bisley Long-Term Vegetation & Soil Plots -65.74629 18.314637 260-400 84 permanent vegetation plots Every 5 years   Luquillo-CZO@sas.upenn.edu
UC Berkeley Upper Montane Vegetation, Soil, Litter Plots -65.763838 18.279714 700-1000 Litterfall mass and elemental fluxes bi-weekly mass flux and chemistry   wsilver@berkeley.edu
UNH Bisley and Icacos Fertilization Plots     210-630 Fertilized 2x per year, mass balances and fluzes Established & managed by W. McDowell   Bill.McDowell@UNH.EDU
El Verde Long-Term Forest Dynamic Plots -65.81972 18.321055 447.4 16 ha grid of identified and tagged trees, soils Annual to event based    
Luquillo Soil Network -65.789797 18.300887 300-810 216 plots stratified by geology, topo, forest type Once and project based studies   Luquillo-CZO@sas.upenn.edu
UC Berkeley Bisley Instrumented Hillslope -65.7487 18.3157 300.0 Soil moisture and oxygen in 10 plots Continuous   wsilver@berkeley.edu
UC Berkeley Bisley catena soil plots -65.7487 18.3157 260-400 60 soil plots stratified among four replicate ridge/slope/valley catenas Once and project based studies   wsilver@berkeley.edu