Richter et al., 2007

Paper/Book

Long-term soil experiments: Keys to managing Earth's rapidly changing ecosystems

Richter, Daniel deB. Jr., Michael Hofmockel, Mac A. Callaham, David S. Powlson, and Pete Smith (2007)
Soil Science Society of America Journal 71 (2): 266-279  

Abstract

To meet economic and environmental demands for about 10 billion people by the mid-21st century, humanity will be challenged to double food production from the Earth’s soil and diminish adverse effects of soil management on the wider environment. To meet these challenges, an array of scientifi c approaches is being used to increase understanding of long-term soil trends and soil–environment interactions. One of these approaches, that of long-term soil experiments (LTSEs), provides direct observations of soil change and functioning across time scales of decades, data critical for biological, biogeochemical, and environmental assessments of sustainability; for predictions of soil productivity and soil–environment interactions; and for developing models at a wide range of scales. Although LTSEs take years to mature, are vulnerable to loss, and have yet to be comprehensively inventoried or networked, LTSEs address a number of contemporary issues and yield data of special significance to soil management. The objective of this study was to evaluate how LTSEs address three questions that fundamentally challenge modern society: how soils can sustain a doubling of food production in the coming decades, how soils interact with the global C cycle, and how soil management can establish greater control over nutrient cycling. Results demonstrate how LTSEs produce signifi cant data and perspectives for all three questions. Results also suggest the need for a review of the state of our long-term soil-research base and the establishment of an effi ciently run network of LTSEs aimed at soil-management sustainability and improving management control over C and nutrient cycling.

Citation

Richter, Daniel deB. Jr., Michael Hofmockel, Mac A. Callaham, David S. Powlson, and Pete Smith (2007): Long-term soil experiments: Keys to managing Earth's rapidly changing ecosystems. Soil Science Society of America Journal 71 (2): 266-279. DOI: 10.2136/sssaj2006.0181