Calhoun CZO Research Area 1

Field Areas     

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The largest of the research areas at the Calhoun, this includes three major subsections: (1) the Calhoun Long-Term Soil-Ecosystem Plots and Reference Areas, (2) the "tower site" (site of future flux tower and clearcut treatment), and (3) the "dove field", which to our knowledge has been continuously cultivated since at least the 1930s. Also included in Research Area 1 is a 70-m deep well in a cow pasture on private land adjacent to the long-term plots.

0.40 km2   Area

180 - 190 m   Elev

16 °C   Temp

1250 mm   Precip

Parent Field Area:
Calhoun Critical Zone Observatory ▲

View through one of the 16 permanent plots at the Calhoun LTSE showing the loblolly pine overstory and hardwood understory.  June 2004.  Photo: Jason Jackson.

Lithology

unconsolidated materials, igneous-felsic intrusive, meta-igneous

Soil Order

Ultisol

Biome

coniferous forest, deciduous forest

Land Use

agricultural land, forest land

Areas within Calhoun CZO Research Area 1

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Setting & Research
Overview Maps
Dynamic Map
Data
Partner Organizations
  • Setting & Research

    The Calhoun Experimental Forest is located in Sumter National Forest near Union, SC.  Annual precipitation averages 1272 mm and mean annual temperature averages 15.7 C.  The site is characterized by gentle slopes (<3%) composed of Cataula series soil (fine, kaolinitic, thermic oxyaquic Kanhapludults).

    The Calhoun LTSE in the Southern Carolina Piedmont, USA, was initiated in 1957 on old cotton fields by US Forest Service scientists. Vegetation and soil in the 16 0.1-ha plots have been resampled with nearly all samples archived on eight occasions (1962, 1968, 1972, 1977, 1982, 1990, 1997, 2005, 2010). The Calhoun study demonstrates like few others the dynamics of belowground ecological and geochemical processes and properties over a fifty year time scale. Results from the 16 permanent plots are supplemented by land-use history plots, also called reference areas with hardwoods, secondary pine, hay, and cultivated crops. The study also demonstrates how contemporary ecosystem dynamics are strongly controlled by historic land use impacts (the legacies of cotton cultivation between 1800 and 1955) and multi-millennial evolution of the natural ecosystem. In May 2007, half of the 16 permanent plots were clear-cut and are being regenerated with pine, all to better examine human impacts on decadal changes in soils and ecosystems. The Calhoun Experimental Forest has become a globally-significant experiment not only of management effects, but of natural recovery processes as well. Calhoun researchers invite collaborations with other scientists, land managers and users, teachers, writers, and students.

  • Overview Maps

    Research Area 1

    Extent of R1 on USFS land outlined in blue. Green dots are vegetation plots. Blue dots are gas wells. Yellow star is the 70-m deep well. Blue asterisks are water sampling sites.

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  • Dynamic Map

    To fully zoom into a small area, you may need to visit the "Map" button and uncheck "Terrain" view.

  • Data

    Calhoun 70-m deep well - Groundwater Depth, Electrical Conductivity, Precipitation (2014-2015)
    2 components    Calhoun CZO Research Area 1    Hydrology, Climatology / Meteorology    Mallard, John; McGlynn, Brian

    Calhoun CZO - LiDAR - LiDAR Leaf-Off Survey (2016)
    1 components    Calhoun CZO Research Area 1, Calhoun CZO Research Area 4, Calhoun Eco-hydrology Experiments, Calhoun Long-Term Soil-Ecosystem Plots and Reference Areas    GIS / Remote Sensing    National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping

    Calhoun CZO - LiDAR - Hyperspectral and LiDAR Survey (2014)
    1 components    Calhoun CZO Research Area 1, Calhoun CZO Research Area 4, Calhoun Eco-hydrology Experiments, Calhoun Long-Term Soil-Ecosystem Plots and Reference Areas    GIS / Remote Sensing    National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping

    Calhoun CZO - Soil Geochemistry (2016)
    1 components    Calhoun CZO Research Area 1, Calhoun CZO Research Area 2, Calhoun CZO Research Area 6, Calhoun CZO Research Area 7, Calhoun CZO Research Area 8    Geochemistry / Mineralogy    Austin, Jason C.; Schroeder, Paul A.

    Calhoun CZO - Vegetation - Litterfall (2014-2017)
    1 components    Calhoun CZO Research Area 1, Calhoun CZO Research Area 2, Calhoun CZO Research Area 3, Calhoun CZO Research Area 4, Calhoun CZO Research Area 5    Biology / Ecology    O'Neill, K. P.; Cook, C. W.; Richter, D. deB.

    Calhoun CZO - Vegetation - Leaf Area Index (2014)
    1 components    Calhoun CZO Research Area 1, Calhoun CZO Research Area 4, Calhoun Eco-hydrology Experiments    Biology / Ecology    Cook, Charles W.

    Calhoun CZO - Soil Porosity, Soil Invertebrates (2015-2017)
    2 components    Calhoun CZO Research Area 1, Calhoun CZO Research Area 4, Calhoun CZO Research Area 7    Soil Science / Pedology, Biology / Ecology    Z.S. Brecheisen, M.A. Callaham, P.R. Heine, C.W. Cook, D. deB Richter

    Calhoun CZO - Photographic Imagery, Soil Survey - Soil Pit Profiles (2016)
    4 components    Calhoun CZO Research Area 1, Calhoun CZO Research Area 2, Calhoun CZO Research Area 7, Calhoun CZO Research Area 8    Soil Science / Pedology    Cook, Charles W.

    Calhoun CZO - Soil Texture (2015)
    1 components    Calhoun CZO Research Area 1, Calhoun CZO Research Area 4    Soil Science / Pedology    Heine, Paul R

    Calhoun CZO - Soil Biogeochemistry (2015-2016)
    1 components    Calhoun CZO Research Area 1, Calhoun CZO Research Area 2, Calhoun CZO Research Area 7, Calhoun CZO Research Area 8    Biogeochemistry, Biology / Ecology, Soil Science / Pedology    Sharon Billings, Christoph Lehmeier, Kyungjin Min, Samik Bagchi, Emma Hauser, Keelan Barger, Samantha Elledge, Rebecca Flournoy, Carl Heroneme, Hanna Rankin, Rena Stair

    Calhoun CZO Research Area 1 - Flux Tower - Young Pine Forest (2016)
    3 components    Calhoun Long-Term Soil-Ecosystem Plots and Reference Areas, Calhoun CZO Research Area 1    Climatology / Meteorology    Yao Tang, Jingfeng Wang

    Research area 1 - Soil Gas, Soil Moisture, Soil Temperature (2016)
    1 components    Calhoun CZO Research Area 1    Biogeochemistry, Soil Science / Pedology, Hydrology    Brecheisen, Z. S.; Cook, C. W.; Richter, D. deB.

    Research areas 1, 4, 7 - Soil Gas (2015-2017)
    2 components    Calhoun CZO Research Area 1, Calhoun CZO Research Area 4, Calhoun CZO Research Area 7    Biogeochemistry, Soil Science / Pedology    Brecheisen, Z. S.; Cook, C. W.; Richter, D. deB.

  • Partner Organizations